Welcome to Excel Jet Consult blog post. In this tutorial, we will learn about Absolute Cell Reference. An Absolute Cell Reference is a cell reference that contains dollar signs ($) before column letter and row number (i.e. $A$1). The dollar signs ensure that cell $A$1 is fixed when formula is copied down or across using the **fill handle.** To apply the absolute cell reference, hold down the Fn key and execute F4 **once** on the keyboard. By default, formulas operate what is called Relative Cell Reference (i.e. A1).

Aside from Relative &b Absolute Cell References, we have what is called Mixed or Partial Cell References such as $A1 and A$1.

Exercise: Albion Fuchs Inc., management decided to give 8% bonuses to each of its employee. The bonus is calculated by multiplied by the **Annual** **Salary** for each employee by **Bonus** percentage in cell L7.

To calculate the Total Package, in cell I6, execute the formula: =H6*L7

Click **Enter** and copy down the formula using **Fill Handle.**

In the caption above, the first employee receives ₦104,000 as bonus. However, we discovered that when we copy the formula down, we have ₦0. Furthermore, cell L6 (which is the original cell that housed the 8% bonus value), is moving relatively. To fix this problem so that cell L6 do not move down, we have to apply absolute cell reference.

To fix this problem: Double click on cell I6 and click anywhere close to cell L6

Execute F4 key once.

Execute CTRL + Enter and copy the formula down

Problem fixed!

To calculate Total Package: In cell J6, executive: =SUM(H17:I17) and copy the formula down

=SUM(H17:I17)